Static Voltage Stability Enhancement Using FACTS Controller

2016 International Conference on Emerging Technological Trends [ICETT]

Static Voltage Stability Enhancement Using FACTS

Controller

Isaiah G. Adebayo1 , Adisa A. Jimoh 2 , Adedayo A. Yusuff 3 , C. Subramani 4

1,2,3Department of Electrical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa.

4Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SRM University, Kanchipuram, India

1 isaiahadebayo@http://www.51wendang.com, 2Jimohaa@tut.ac.za, 3Yusuffaa@tut.ac.za, 4csmsrm@http://www.51wendang.com

Abstract— The modern day power system is faced with challenges of voltage instability and has become a great concern to the power system industries. In this work, we proposed a technique of the Network structural Characteristics Participation Factor (NSCPF) to identify the most critical node where reactive power compensator can be placed for voltage stability enhancement. The approach is based on the use of eigenvalue decomposition technique on the submatrix of the partitioned bus admittance matrix. Conventional power flow based approach of voltage stability index (L-Index) and the modal analysis methods are used as benchmarks to the proposed approach to determine its effectiveness. The STATCOM FACTS controller is in turn installed at the critical bus as identified by both techniques. Simulation results obtained show that, the suggested approach saves time and is more advantageous in identifying the suitable bus for the placement of STATCOM.

Keywords— Power flow, Power electronics, Voltage stability indices, Network Structural characteristics, Modal Analysis

I.INTRODUCTION

Power system voltage stability is a complex matter that has been challenging the power system utilities in the past two decades [1],[2]. The continuous increase in power demand and more interconnections with limited transmission expansion has been a demanding task to operate the power system in an efficient way [3]. The consequence of the occurrence of voltage instability in power systems may be very catastrophic as this could lead to voltage collapse [4]. This incident is characterized by a slow variation in the system operating point, as a result of increase in loads, in such a manner that voltage magnitudes gradually decrease until a sharp, accelerated change occurs [5].

A number of major blackouts throughout the world have been directly related with this phenomenon, for example, the blackout experienced in 2003 in North America, and later in Europe, New Zealand, France, Iran, Belgium, Japan and so on [6]. Thus, it has become a major threat and concern to the power system operators and has been considered as an active area of research in the recent year. Over the years, considerable attempts have been made by several researchers to curb the occurrence of voltage collapse in power systems. The use of PV and QV curves have gained much attention since the incident of voltage collapse in Tokyo and are well documented in the literature [7],[8]. These techniques are computationally demanding and are time consuming, especially for large and complex networks. Other voltage instability and voltage collapse prediction techniques reported in the literature [9] include continuation power flow (CPF) method [10], modal analysis [11], the minimum singular value of the power flow Jacobian [12], voltage instability proximity indicator [13].

The use of these methods, however, is time consuming and laborious, particularly for a large power system network as it involves performing a power flow solution before a collapse point is detected. Most recently, considerable stability indices have been introduced and developed in the literatures to assess the condition of system voltage stability. These indices include, among others voltage stability index (L-index), voltage collapse proximity index (VCPI), Line stability index, Line stability factor (LPQ) and Fast Voltage stability index (FVSI) [1], [14]-[16]. Although, the use of these indices has helped system operators a lot, especially to determine the bus that is susceptible to collapse. However, the process is always too tedious and time consuming as it requires performing a multiple power flow before the point is detected. Thus, there is a need for a reliable and fast tool for voltage collapse point detection in power system.

Although a considerable effort has been made by the author of [17] in detecting nodes suitable for optimal location of reactive power compensators for voltage stability enhancement, however, the best nodes identified by the authors for the placement of compensators may not be the most critical, as their work did not capture the bus which participate (contribute) most to the smallest eigenvalue (critical mode) identified. FACTS devices are mostly used to provide power flow and voltage control in many utilities. The use of FACTS controller devices such as UPFC, STATCOM, SVC, GUPFC, TCSC, IPFC among others, for voltage control is well documented in the open literatures [11],[18],[19].

In this paper, we suggest an approach based on the network topological characteristics of power system which makes use of the critical mode and the associated eigenvectors

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