词汇学期末复习资料答案

1.Words Motivation言语理据: deals with the connection between name (word-symbol) and its sense (meaning). It is the relationship between the word structure and its meaning. There are four types of motivation, which are Onomatopoeic motivation, Morphologic motivation, Semantic motivation and etymologic motivation.(1) Onomatopoeic motivation:拟声理据 Onomatopoeic motivation means defining the principle of motivation by sound. For example, bow-wow, bang, ping-pong, miaow, tick-tuck ,haha and the like are Onomatopoeic words. Knowing the sounds means understanding the meaning of a word.(2) Morphologic motivation:形态理据 It means that we observe the connection between morphemic structure of the word and its meaning. For example,if one knows the meaning of the affix and the base, say –able and learn, then one can immediately tell that the meaning of the word learnable is “that can be learned”. (3) Semantic motivation:语义理据 Semantic motivation refers to the mental association suggested by the conceptual meaning of a word. For example: When we speak of a stony heart we are comparing the heart with a stone.(4) etymologic motivation: 词源理据It explains the words whose meanings are closely associated with their origins, i.e. the meanings of the words. For example, now people use pen for any writing tool though it originally denotes “feather” because before modern pens were created, feathers were commonly used as writing tool.

2.Meanings of meaning: There are seven types of meaning which is proposed by G. Leech.(1)conceptual meaning: 概念意义it is the literal meaning. It is concerned with the relationship between a word and the thing refers to. eg: the word "desk" is explained as a piece of furniture in the dictionary. (2)connotative meaning:内涵意义 it refers to the meaning implied. eg: woman is a tiger and in this sentence, the word "woman" is connotative meaning.(3)social meaning: if refers to social circumstances. eg: the meaning of the word black differs in the two collcations of black hair and black tea.(4)affective meaning: 情感意义it refers to emotion or the feeling expressed by the speaker or writer. For example, the woman is cute. In this sentence, the word "cute" expresses the author's favor to woman..(5)reflective meaning:联想意义 it refers to meaning undetected in communication. Take the word "table" as an example. It is a very common word in English. If we look it up in any dictionary, we will find that it has at least the following three meanings: a piece of furniture, all the people seated at a table, the food that is put on a table.(6)collocative

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